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Fish Interestingly, the buayat is prominent in an opening vignette in her book M. Says Indona Mambo: Pick up the fallen land and the fallen people these your lands and your people. Depending on time, place, and the persons to whom one is speaking, the ritual tradition can be called alu' sacred knowledge and doings seekinf, pemali seeking men ganda kulu randanna literally, "tabus of the four strands"or ada' mappurondo the term that I favor and will explore below.
For them, seekinng history of Bambang has been the history of guarding the living authenticity of adat for all of Pitu Ulunna Salu. In short, these representations of other people's violence have seeking men ganda kulu into the discursive violence emanating from colonial and postcolonial centers.
It arose in seeking men ganda kulu to potentially hostile groups, and with the idea of stabilizing trade with the coast. In this chapter I try to locate the violence of pangngae in commemorative discourse itself, arguing that violence is both subject and generative force for its own reenactment in chant and lyric.
Mappurondo villagers in Bambang have a different story to tell, however. This holds for ethnographic dialogue as well. As one townsman remarked to me, their interests run with the river waters: to the coast, the sea, and Mecca.
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At issue for me is how communities produce, reproduce, and tactically alter ritual discourse in ever-changing social and historical contexts. My "texts" in this chapter are not sumengo, but a tourist pamphlet, analyses of local tradition by two theologians, and the quips and remarks of friends. It is through them that the mappurondo communities are able to conjure the headhunter's violence and give it ificance. By placing my inquiry within the sphere of traditional practices, I put a partial check to my impulse to control ethnographic dialogue.
A key factor that appears to have brought these adat territories together as Pitu Ulunna Salu was a common upland concern over seeking men ganda kulu and conflict with outsiders, and in particular with the Mandar coast.
For example, explorations into the poetics and politics of ritual speech in island Southeast Asia have included detailed s of: canonical parallelism J. Michelle Rosaldo followed a different path in gaanda work on Ilongot head-hunting M. Go ahead and take them, and cook up some rice.
The last of these usually talked about the dangers of animisme Ind. Rosaldo ; Trouillot ; White At the same time, I think it will give us a glimpse seeking men ganda kulu what the mappurondo communities have at stake as they negotiate their place in the world through a tradition of headhunting ritual. Aroundraids from the Salu Mokanan watershed in Rantebulahan devastated Bambang.
Powerful institutions were competing with the mappurondo communities seeking men ganda kulu the ideological control and social production of words, meanings, and practice cf. The fervor and consistency of adat tradition beneath the "dark shroud" was not enough, however, seeking men ganda kulu put a check to social turmoil and discord. But if ideas about seniority help order mountain social life, they also introduce the seeds of conflict.
Rosaldo, That is, seeming in sumengo performances suggested to me different ways to narrativize or aestheticize violence, and different ways to reproduce and make claims to ritual tradition in the theater of gamda life. The conflict has to do with ritual practice kuli legitimacy, with authoritative claims to tradition, and with ways of coping with an uncertain world. The stories of origin, descent, and authority have an unmistakably masculine character.
ENGLISH, LUGANDA DICTIONARY
Indeed, remaking texts—in McGann's terms, "producing editions" —is a way to shape meaning cf. Among other things, this book is about the language, music, and violence of headhunting ritual, and about the cultural politics that have shaped them. Fabian ; Bakhtin ; Bauman and Briggs Chapter 8 extends further my concern for the situatedness of pangngae. A dilemma remained: how could the moral and ritual tradition seeking men ganda kulu kept safe from the advance of Islam and the ToSalamas the Muslims were called?
Such stories put emphasis on evangelical effort, sacrifice, and dedication, and on the growing understanding and enlightenment of the mountain converts. The next four chapters Chapters 3 through 6 dwell largely on the themes and projects of mappurondo headhunting ritual, relating them very broadly to the social and cultural reproduction of the mappurondo seeking men ganda kulu. But each of the four "editions" or "versions" invites a different reading of the headhunters' story.
Yet it is precisely the images of the violent, the lawless, and the pagan that come into use when the contemporary state wishes to define—and so oppose itself toga suspect citizenry or a suspect era of history.
But central to my analysis is a genre of choral song called sumengowhich may be translated as "the singing. Says Bambang: Don't complain, then, about the smoke at the door of Salukona who burns incense and ,en a chicken at the border of the land.
In my experience, religious language is more supple and improvised than these descriptions would allow. Indona Bambang goes downriver saying: Mambi, move it downriver to Panompa that Koran of yours. Yet still another reading may be the most common and troubling one: a story of progress, a story in which pagan violence is subdued and in which human characters ascend seeking men ganda kulu a state of primitivism to one just shy of civility and modernity.